8, views. Share; Like; Download BRITISH STANDARD BS Incorporating Amendment No. 1 Specification for carbon steel. BS , February Second revision December New edition September The following BSI references relate to the work on. BRITISH STANDARD. Specification for carbon steel welded horizontal cylindrical storage tanks. BS pdf free download. click below BS pdf.

Bs 2594 British Standard Download

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Revision of BS Superseded by BS EN and BS EN Confirmed October Publisher Information. British Standards . Download BRITISH STANDARD BS Incorporating Amendment No. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct. Home · Documents; BS Carbon Welded Tanks Download prev Construction Standard for Large Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks Documents Registration Certificate ActivePDF BW Logo -· BS.

NOTE— The plate material specified in 7. If so specified in the contract or order, couplings for threaded connections may be supplied without recesses; when so supplied the coupling in all other respects shall conform to IS : Pipes used for structural purposes shall conform to IS : or IS : with respect to physical properties of the material.

Pipes of heavy class conforming to IS Part 1 : may be used for nozzles on tank and internal piping, if so specified in the contract or order. Requirements of slip on welding and welding neck flanges are covered in IS : Nuts shall conform to pro- perty class 4 of IS Part 6 : For other steels this shall be taken as of the minimum yield stress or of the minimum tensile stress specified, whichever is less.

For this purpose steel conforming to IS : and IS : shall be treated as equivalent to IS : or IS : whereas Type 2 steel conforming to IS : shall be treated as equivalent to IS : Thicknesses chosen shall not be less than the thicknesses given in Table 1.

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To safeguard against corrosion caused by the environment and the product stored 1. Above-ground tanks shall be provided with steel wear plates for installing them on con- crete pedestals or steel cradles as specified by the downloadr. Concrete pedestals shall be designed to support the tank full with water.

Where the end plate is made by welding of two or more plates, the weld joint shall be made horizontal. Full width of plate s should be utilized at the bottom. The downloadr shall specify type of such protection that he considers desirable. Suggested good practices for asphalt doping are given in Annex C. The anchorage could be either provided by means of steel flat of round bars having ade- quate cross Section to resist the uplift at a stress level of MPa maximum. Alternative designs of appurtenances which provide equiva- lent strength, tightness and utihty are permis- sible, if so agreed to by the downloadr.

IS : The minimum thickness of the reinforcing pad shall be the same as the shell thickness and diameter shall be twice the diameter of the hole cut subject to maximum diameter of the opening plus mm. Typical details of lugs and positions are shown in Fig. Appropriate perforation shall be provided for various products.

BS-2594 Carbon Welded Tanks

Alternatively, in case of above-ground tank a float arrange- ment for continuous gauging of liquid level inside the tank may be used. Vent pipe of any tank shall not be interconnected with that of another. The open end of every vent pipe shall be covered with two layers of non-corrodible metal wire gauge having not less than 11 meshes per linear centimetre and shall be further protected from rain by a hood or by suitably bending it downward.

For this purpose, two earthing bosses of appro- priate sizes shall be welded to the saddle support in case of above-ground tanks and to the end plate in case of underground tanks.

Guidelines for making earthing connection for tanks are also given in Annex D. Welding procedure in general and the qualifi- cation of welders shall be as specified in IS : and IS : It is recommended that whenver possible a longitudinal seam should be situated in the upper third of a tank or on the top centre line.

The recommended size of angle stiffeners as IS : given in Fig. Table 1 shall be arranged as per The safety considerations are usually related to fire hazards which in turn are dependent on the physical properties of the stored material e. API Standard gives guidance on the design of vents to prevent pressure changes that would otherwise occur as a result of temperature changes or the transfer in and out of liquids.

Excessive loss of vapours from vent systems may result from outbreathing and may present a hazard. Reactor design Reactors are often the centre of most processes and their design is of utmost importance when considering the safety hazards of a plant. Reactors are most often considered as pressure vessels and the mechanical design should be in accordance with the codes and standards described earlier. Reactor design should minimise the possibility of a hazardous situation developing and provide the means for dealing with a hazardous situation should it develop.

Arrangements for venting, pressure relief and blowdown need to be adequately addressed in the design. For relief systems consideration should be given to the implications of the release of reactor contents and containment and control systems may be necessary to prevent a hazardous situation from developing as a result of the discharge of a relief system.

The design of the reactor may affect the efficiency of the reaction process and hence the generation of by-products and impurities.

The effectiveness of the reaction step will often determine the requirement for and complexity of downstream separation processes. In addition, low conversions may result in large recycles being required. Many different types of reactor system are available and some of the important criteria to consider are given below: Addition of reactants - the order and rate of addition of the reactants may affect the rate of reaction and the generation of by-products.

The generation of unstable by-products or excessive reaction rates may increase the potential for a hazardous situation to develop. The position of addition of reactants may also be important - sub-surface and directly into an intimate mixing zone within the reactor may result in the minimisation of the generation of reaction by-products; Mixing - the agitation system selected for the reactor if appropriate may directly influence the efficiency of the reaction and hence the generation of by-products.

Consideration should also be given to the consequences of agitation failure in the design of the reaction system. Consideration should be given to the modes of failure of the control and cooling systems to ensure that the hazards of a runaway exothermic reaction are minimised; Phase - the reaction may take place in the gas, liquid or sometimes solid phase.

The way in which the reactants are brought into contact may influence the efficiency of the reaction and introduce additional hazards into the reaction system; Catalysts - a reaction may require a catalyst in order to promote the required reaction. However the catalyst may present additional hazards and consideration should be given to the selection of the catalyst system in order to minimise the risks associated.

If a catalyst is required then additional separation steps to remove the catalyst may subsequently be required. The safety report should describe how the reactor system has been designed with the principles of safe design in mind and how the selection of the mixing, chemical addition systems and relief systems have been selected in order to minimise the potential for a major accident.

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A number of direct or indirect techniques can be employed. The most common form of equipment used to transfer heat is a heat exchanger which can be designed in many different shapes, sizes and configurations necessary to obtain the required heat transfer between one stream and another.

A number of different heat transfer operations are possible with some involving a change of phase of one or more component. Heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation may all need to be considered and the equipment designed accordingly to account for the differing requirements.

The basic design is commenced by an approximate sizing of the unit based on assumptions made concerning the heat transfer characteristics of the substances involved and the anticipated materials of construction.

More detailed calculations are then required to confirm and refine the original design and to identify an optimum layout. Once the process design has been completed the mechanical design of the unit can then be carried out. The design of heat exchangers is covered in many texts. Many companies also have their own standards to supplement these various requirements.

The TEMA standards give the preferred shell and tube dimensions, the design and manufacturing tolerances, corrosion allowances and the recommended design stresses for materials of construction. Design temperatures and pressures for exchangers are usually specified with a margin of safety beyond the conditions normally anticipated.

Major problems associated with heat exchanger design that may affect safety include fouling, polymerization, solidification, overheating, leakage, tube vibration and tube rupture. Special consideration needs to be given to the preventing overheating within heat exchanger equipment especially if sensitive materials are involved, for example materials which may undergo exothermic decomposition. The safety report should demonstrate that heat exchange equipment has been designed and maintained in accordance with the relevant codes and standards and that consideration has been given to the various failure modes that could occur and the implications of such events.

It should be demonstrated that wherever possible measures have been taken to prevent, control or mitigate the consequences of such events by the appropriate selection of materials of construction, fabrication methods, instrumentation and control or others.

The design of the furnace or boiler enclosure should be able to withstand the thermal conditions associated with the system and specialist designs are often required.

Many codes and standards exist for boiler design. The elimination of hazards in burner design is a fundamental design requirement. Explosions can occur during start up if ignition design is not carefully considered.

Leaks of fuel can cause explosive atmospheres when ignition is attempted. Isolation systems should be adequately designed to ensure leakage of fuel does not occur. Double block and bleed valves on fuel lines can be considered. Reliance should never be placed upon single valves for isolation. Careful consideration of the configuration of the pipework should also be considered to ensure that the flow of fuel into the system after the flame has failed or valves have been closed is minimised.

Purging facilities are essential to ensure that the firing space is free from a flammable atmosphere prior to start-up ignition. It should be demonstrated that the risks of an explosion occurring have been minimised by the design of the burner control management system and the layout and design of the fuel supply systems. Rotating equipment Process machines are particularly important items of equipment in process plants and in relation to pressure systems since they are required to provide the motive force necessary to transfer process fluids liquids, solids and gases from one area of operation to another.

A machine system is any reciprocating or rotating device that is used to transfer or to produce a change in properties within a process plant. Examples may include items such as pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, centrifuges, agitators etc. This type of equipment is a potential source of loss of containment. The basic requirements to define the application for pumps, fans and compressors are usually the suction and delivery pressures, the flow rate required and the pressure loss in transmission.

Temperature and pressure

Special requirements for certain industrial sectors may also impose restrictions on the materials of construction to be used or the type of device that can be considered. These standards often specify design, construction and testing details such as material selection, shop inspection and tests, drawings, clearances, construction procedures etc The choice of material of construction is dictated by consideration of corrosion, erosion, personnel safety and containment and contamination.

Pumps Many pumps are of the centrifugal type, although positive displacement types such as reciprocating and screw types are also used. Pumps are available throughout a vast range of sizes and capacities and are also available in a wide range of materials including various metals and plastics.

Sealing of pumps is a very important consideration and is discussed later. The primary advantage of a centrifugal pump is its simplicity.

Pumps are particularly vulnerable to mal-operation and poor installation practices. Proper installation and high quality maintenance is essential for safe operation.If measured levels exceed prescribed values then preventative maintenance is required and should be performed. Major problems associated with heat exchanger design that may affect safety include fouling, polymerization, solidification, overheating, leakage, tube vibration and tube rupture.

Numerous different types of sealing arrangement exist for rotating equipment. All the interior surfaces of the tank shall be cleaned to remove all rust and foreign matters like grease, dirt, etc, before despatch. By collection and analysis of vibration signatures of rotating equipment it is possible to identify which components of the system are responsible for particular frequencies of the vibration signal.

Moore, C. Arranging the housed chemical process plant.